Monday, April 27, 2020

Prayer for an End to the Coronavirus / Covid19 Pandemic

St. Roch, Patron Saint against pandemics.

Here is a prayer to a patron saint against diseases and illnesses, in particular against epidemics such as the one we are currently experiencing (more information about the saint is found at the end):

O Blessed Saint Roch,
Patron of the sick,
Have pity on those
Who lie upon a bed of suffering.
Your power was so great
When you were in this world,
That by the sign of the Cross,
Many were healed of their diseases.
Now that you are in heaven,
Your power is not less.
Offer, then, to God
Our sighs and tears
And obtain for us that health we seek
Through Christ our Lord.
St. Roch was born with a birthmark of a cross on his chest. He became a powerful intercessor while on earth. He contracted the bubonic plague, as can be seen in his statue above. However, he survived with the help of a dog who would bring him food.

St. Roch's holiness started at a young age, when he would fast, along with his mother, twice a week, even while he was nursing.

He followed in the footsteps of St. Francis by giving away all of his earthly possessions to help the poor, which were left to him by his parents who died when he was only 20 years old.

Friday, April 24, 2020

Image may contain: 1 person, possible text that says 'Fr. Patrick Hyde, OP @frpatrickop Yesterday, I anointed someone dying from COVID19 His sheer joy when he recognized my voice was one of the most beautiful & powerful experiences of faith in my life. "Father, I'm so glad you're here. Now I can go in peace.' This is the power of the Sacraments & why I'm a priest.'

Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Governor Cuomo's Blasphemous Comments Addressed

Governor Andrew Cuomo of New York said some blasphemous comments which are addressed quite well by Bishop Robert Barron in his article. In it, he explains that God isn't just one of many causes, but he is the ultimate cause of all things and is "to be" itself. It's a great read. Check it out here.

Friday, April 17, 2020

What I do besides this blog. One thing is my Omega-3 business.

I know this isn't the usual topic, and feel free to skip this one if you are just interested in Catholic information. But I just wanted to do a quick shout-out to my online website called On this website, I primarily sell a product called Terra Nova Omega-3 Seal Oil capsules. Seal oil contains a very high level of omega-3 and is very good for your health.

Did you know: Catholics in Newfoundland were given permission to consume seal during Fridays of Lent as it was considered an aquatic animal and thus classified as a fish?

I just wanted to mention this business here on this website to let people know some of the things I do outside of this blog. I'm trying to really get my business off the ground, so I just wanted to take a minute to let my readers know about this site.

I am from Newfoundland, Canada and Atlantic harp seals are a very abundant species. In fact, in 6 million seals, there are about 10 seals for every person in our province! Seals are one of the best sources of omega-3 supplements. The reason is that they have already converted various other forms of omega-3 into a type that is readily available for use in the human diet. As a comparison, plant sources of omega-3 can only be used at a rate of about 10-15% by the human body as it comes in the form of ALA.

On the other hand, seal oil contains high levels of DHA, EPA, and DPA which are specific types of omega-3s and are vital in human health. We cannot create our own omega-3 compounds and so they must come from our diets. Unfortunately, most people's diets have a lot more omega-6 than omega-3. As a comparison, most diets have at least a 15:1 ratio of omega-6 to omega-3. Many have more, even as high as 50:1. It is recommended that at most our ratio be 4:1, and some even say 1:1 would be optimal.

Seal oil contains a reversed amount compared to the average diet, coming in at 1:7.5. That means for every 1 unit of omega-6, there are 7.5 units of omega-3.

Unfortunately, seal oil is not allowed to be sold in the United States. I think there is simply a general ban on all seal products. This is unfortunate because seals are harvested in a very humane and sustainable way. They are not farmed and live their entire lives in their natural environment and only adult seals are ever killed. Plus the number taken is such that their overall population will not decrease.

So if you are from Canada or from Asia, please check out my website at Place an order if you are interested. If you have any questions, please feel free to contact me.

I appreciate you giving me this opportunity to talk a little about my business. I hope it was not too disruptive. I won't be posting a lot about at all. I may not post anything about it again. Please let me know if you are upset or unhappy with my decision to post this. Having said that, stay tuned for great Catholic content and thank you for being a loyal reader!

Thursday, April 16, 2020

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Wednesday, April 15, 2020

Catholic Confirmation During Coronavirus (Covid19) Pandemic

How to Keep the Faith Alive in Young Catholics After Confirmation

As the final article in this series wherein I look at the 7 sacraments and whether / how they can take place, I will be taking a look at the sacrament of Confirmation.

There are many considerations when it comes to confirmation that makes it unique compared to other sacraments. The sacrament is the outpouring of the Holy Spirit in a special way. It increases the gifts of the Holy Spirit (aka the Holy Ghost) which include wisdom, knowledge, right judgment, understanding, courage, piety, and fear of the Lord. The sacrament deepens ones connection with God and gives a more intimate relationship with Jesus Christ.

In most places in the world, the sacraments have been cancelled, including the sacrament of confirmation. My friend was going to receive the sacrament of confirmation this past Easter Vigil but it was cancelled. In fact, I was meant to be his sponsor. I was a little nervous to go ahead with it since I rarely leave the house. I am probably overreacting to the whole thing.

My friend found out his sponsor did not need to attend for the sacrament to take place. He contacted the archdiocese to see if there would be any way for it to go ahead but unfortunately they said it could not.

I understand the longing he has to be confirmed and receive the Holy Eucharist. It's not only him but also his girlfriend who are both looking to join the Church and this has become a great time of waiting. But I believe there is virtue and holiness in all of this just as God can bring holiness from any situation. We make situations holy by how we react to them. If we trust in God's providence, we can get through this. Perhaps it will ultimately lead to greater joy and closeness to God.

I trust the archbishops who have made this difficult decision. I do not feel people should put themselves at risk for these things. I think God protects his people, but we also cannot act foolishly. Jesus Christ himself said he would not jump off a tall building to test God and see if he would be caught.

Confirmation is a hands-on sacrament, literally. There isn't any way of going about it while having social distancing. Also, although it may be legal, as in the case of marriage, to have very few people present, is that ideal? Having a larger group can be edifying and really demonstrate the holy faith to others, something we need these days.

Therefore, overall, I would say trust God and his plan. Be humble and do not become angry. Realize that the desire for the sacraments is a holy desire and it comes from a place of Faith, Hope, and Charity, and this ought to bring great comfort for it means God loves you and wants what is best for you.

Have a great Easter everyone!

Tuesday, April 14, 2020

Good Friday is not the Same as Easter Sunday

Easter Sunday | Sara's Musings

I just wanted to quickly note something I've noticed over the past few days - people combining Good Friday and Easter as if they are the same thing. This is particularly true of politicians. I noticed it with President Trump. I like President Trump's speeches when it comes to Catholic feast days. He has definitely done a lot more than other presidents and our own Prime Minister. He doesn't just mention the name of the holy day and then go on talking about something else, he actually delves into quite a bit. He's not afraid to talk about "Our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ" and that he is a Christian which is refreshing. He doesn't feel the need to qualify everything he is saying or give a shout out to everyone. At the same time if he were to recognize some other group, I wouldn't expect him to throw in random references to Christianity.

But one thing I did notice is that when speaking about Good Friday, he just kept going to Easter. Yes, the two are obviously connected and are really two ends of a single event. I understand that. But they are also opposites in a way. Jesus Christ is tortured, crucified and dies on the Cross. It is a very solemn and tragic day in the Christian calendar. He dies because of our sins. The Good Friday service is very solemn, dark, and sad. During Easter Vigil, we symbolically wait by the tomb in the cover of night, with just candles to light the way. This is because of what has happened to our savior.

On the other hand, Easter is the greatest triumph in the Christian calendar. The greatest day of celebration and joy. Really the total opposite of Good Friday. Our sins are forgiven and Christ beckons us to "Go in peace!" That's why Easter is filled with bright and happy colours, joy and celebration.

In Trump's speech, when speaking about Good Friday, he did make reference to it being solemn, but when speaking off the cuff, he just immediately would equate it with Easter. I think a distinction needs to be made. In the case of Justin Trudeau, the prime minister of Canada, I'm really not sure what he said about Good Friday. Probably nothing at all. He may have made some random shout-out to Easter at some point. I will look it up, but I know he would never talk about his own faith (he's supposedly Catholic), or say anything meaningful or relevant. He would probably just use politician-speak and have a very generic message. But maybe I shouldn't assume that until I see it.

In any event, I think people need to be clear about the difference of Good Friday and Easter. We have to embrace both just as our lives are not only filled with joy and happiness but also difficult times. But in both, we know that we do not have a God that cannot relate but one who became incarnate so that he suffered more than anyone else and can thus relate to our own suffering.

I hope you continue to have a joyful Easter!

Monday, April 13, 2020

Most Recent Research Confirms the Shroud of Turin is the Burial Cloth of...

Prayer, Scripture sustain faithful as they await delayed sacraments - Grandin Media

Article about my friend and his family who live in Alberta!

Prayer, Scripture sustain faithful as they await delayed sacraments - Grandin Media: The Easter Vigil was set to be the defining moment in Roomi Burney’s life. For two years he prepared for his baptism and confirmation into the Catholic Church, but that plan came to an abrupt halt. As a precaution against the coronavirus, all baptisms, confirmations, and first communions that would have taken place this spring

Fish & Chips: Christ without the Cross

In our modern-day world, most people only want the good stuff. When it comes to religion, most people in my area have abandoned their Christian faith and the only remnant that remains is their adherence to the "good stuff", by which I mean pleasurable aspects of religious celebrations. They probably are not even aware of where these traditions and celebrations come from.

I can give a few examples. One is the absolute madness with which people seek out Fish and Chips on Good Friday. It has become a major tradition. At popular fish and chips restaurants, there are hundreds of people lined up waiting perhaps a couple of hours to get their "feed" of fish and chips. It has simply become a tradition that is completely detached from its original meaning.

Catholics are asked to fast and abstain from flesh meat on Fridays of the year and in particular Good Friday. In fact, Good Friday is one of only 2 fast days mandated by the Catholic Church, at least in Canada. Because fish is not considered a flesh-meat, it can be consumed. But to ignore all of Lent and then on Good Friday have a huge feast of Fish and Chips completely misses the point! It is meant to be a penitential day, a day of reflection, a day where we remember the sacrifice of Christ on the cross and the agony he endured to bring about our salvation. It is not a time for festivities and joyous gatherings.

St. John of the Cross | Saint quotes catholic, Saint quotes ...In our local area, there was a lot of news about how people would get their fish and chips in the midst of a pandemic. Would places be open? How would people line up?

Perhaps people would have been better to stay home and practice some form of penance or fasting.

I'm not saying this from a place of pride, I'm simply showing how people have abandoned all the penance and have only embraced the pleasure. They want the resurrection without the crucifixion. They want the joy without the sorrow. They want Christ but not the Cross.

I, too often, have fallen into this myself. I seek out the easy way to do things, not the right way. But I have started to realize that the easy way doesn't lead to happiness. We are happy when we seek to do the will of God. I am not saying I am there yet, but I do recognize that fact.

Another example of this happening is things like Mardi Gras and even Carnival in some places. These events preceded Lent. Mardi Gras means Fat Tuesday and was a time when people used up all their animal products including fat, because these items are prohibited during Lent. Nowadays though, while many people celebrate Mardi Gras, few do much for Lent. Nothing much will happen until their perverse Good Friday and then Easter. Of course, Easter is highly publicized and celebrated, although again for the wrong reasons. Chocolate, candy, parties, etc. There's nothing wrong with that. In fact, I would encourage people to celebrate Easter in a cheerful and lively way. But it only really makes sense after going through Lent. Again, otherwise it's Christ without the Cross.

This year I undertook a program called Exodus 90, which is a 90-day instead of 40-day program that precedes Lent. I certainly wasn't perfect in my adherence to all the rules of the 90-day practice, and at the tail-end with the pandemic ongoing and my own issues, I kind of fell off the wagon to some degree. Things went better in the last few days during the Triduum.

If done correctly and ideally, Exodus-90 called for the foregoing of many pleasures in life. The rules included only being allowed cold showers, no alcohol, no snacking, no candy, sugar, or desserts, no TV, no sports, etc. It also included substantive prayer time each day, rising early each Saturday morning for a group meeting, and checking in with our "anchor" to monitor our progress and share our struggles. Plus, we are to do some form of intense exercise 3 times per week.

It was very challenging, and as mentioned, I did slip a few times. However, it was an overall good program. If done correctly, it brings great joy to Easter, but it also detaches us from our vices and sins and just general laziness. I have made amends to get up around 6:00 every morning. So far it hasn't been perfect, but it is MUCH better than before. I am also endeavoring to pray every morning.

Doing the program, although imperfectly, has really given me some valuable insight and I will use that as a springboard going forward.

Exodus-90 stands in great contrast to the way of life promoted in our modern-day secular world. One in which excess is barely enough. I think people would find great joy in experiencing both penance and joy, they go hand-in-hand.

I hope you're having a great Easter. God shows us that he loves us because although Lent is 40 days, Easter is 50 days until Pentecost. No matter what struggles we are going through right now, God is telling us that much more joy awaits us now (if we come close to Him) as well as in Heaven.

Saturday, April 11, 2020

Prayer During the Corongavirus (Covid19) Pandemic

Read: Pope Francis's prayer to Mary during coronavirus pandemic ...

As usual, when something like a pandemic strikes, many non-believers will scornfully bash anyone who advocates prayer. They are so petty that even if a politician offers thoughts and prayers, they become upset and feel the need to voice their displeasure with this simple gesture.

I would like to talk a little about the purpose and effectiveness of prayer, and whether or not we should prayer in a time like this, i.e. during the Coronavirus (Covid19) pandemic.

In our modern world, we often have a sort of default materialistic attitude, even among believers. We view things through the lens of our temporal world. For example, when we think of prayer, we may think of gaining material possessions, or doing well on a test, or ending a pandemic. We see those types of things as our highest goals. I think part of this is due to the influence of our secular world on our thinking. Saints advise us that sin originates from three places: the world, the flesh, and the Devil. We are to be in the world but not of the world. Some go as far as to say we are to hate the world. This does not mean hating our neighbor or God, but rather putting the things of the world in its proper place which is well below God's proper place.

So the first thing to understand when it comes to prayer is the purpose of prayer, and more broadly our purpose in life. As a Christian people, we are not secular materialists. Rather, we are spiritual beings and our greatest good comes from having closer communion with God. It is part of our nature. God created us and as St. Augustine tells us, our hearts are restless until they rest in God.

Therefore, we must first get over the idea that the purpose of prayer is to achieve material or temporal success. I heard an excellent homily on the Sensus Fidelium Youtube channel where he discusses how to obtain anything through prayer. Much of what I will be saying in this blog post is inspired from this homily. You can find the video here.

In the talk, he says there are 3 conditions necessary for a prayer to be answered:

  1. Humility
  2. Confidence
  3. Perseverance
Humility, which is the opposite of pride, is probably the most important, and possibly rarest, virtue. It seems, for example, that those who bash prayer and its effectiveness are full of pride. Even if God were to grant their prayer, they would either not attribute it to God or they would just see him as a sort of cosmic slot machine. Put your coin in and you get a big payout. Repeat.

That's also how they deride believers. They mock God, just like some of the people at the foot of the cross. "Save yourself if you're really the son of God!" "Where's God now!" They demand that God obey their demands, and when he doesn't they act indignant, as if they were owed something from the Creator of the Universe. Obviously with such an attitude of entitlement and lack of humility, prayer will rarely be answered.

The second condition for effective prayer is confidence. We must believe that God can and will provide what we need in life, that he loves us and is there for us. St. Terese of Lisieux wanted always to be like a child in the eyes of God. She said as a child we believe our father can do anything. He will always be there for us and will never let us down. She said that's how we must be with God now as adults. Jesus Christ himself told us that unless we are like little children, we cannot enter the Kingdom of God.

The confidence of a child is what we must have in order for our prayers to be answered. We must trust that God loves us and does everything for our good. Sometimes a situation may seem hopeless, but with the trust of a child, we never lose hope. God will bring good from any evil if we allow him and fervently prayer for him to do so.

The third condition for prayer to be answered is perseverance. This is closely related to confidence. The example given in the video I linked is that found in a parable given by Jesus in which a man continually asks for bread from another man who is at first reluctant to provide it since he is already in bed and the door is locked. But the man who wants bread persists, and simply out of annoyance, the man in the house provides him bread. Jesus asks how much more will our Heavenly Father provide for our needs since he loves us more than we love ourselves?

Back to prayer and this pandemic. If we have all three of these characteristics when praying, we will find great advancement in the spiritual life. We will be given everything we could possibly ever need and become holier and closer to God. This is what we truly need. But God operates in other ways as well. He does provide miracles as has been shown countless times throughout history. He can help us with our material as well as spiritual needs. But we cannot approach him with an attitude of testing him or of pride. This attitude will only move us further from God, not closer.

I once heard a very interesting concept which was that if we were all holy saints on Earth, none of the earthly, material issues would be of any concern to us. We would offer up our sufferings to join more fully in the suffering of Christ who redeemed the world. We would not fear death and we would live joyfully. This is what God wants for us. We cannot reject the spiritual completely and just make materialistic demands on God. He would not provide that for us as it will only push us further away from him.

If you have anything to add, please do so in the comment section below. I really love hearing from you!

Friday, April 10, 2020

GOOD FRIDAY PRAYER: President Trump Blessings At The White House

Where can I attend a Catholic Good Friday Service this year during the Coronavirus (Covid19) Pandemic?

Editorial: Real 'Easter People' will stay home | National Catholic ...

Many people are wondering if they can attend Good Friday services or related Church services such as Holy Thursday Mass or the Mass on Easter Sunday in person? The answer is that almost everywhere these events are being cancelled, churches are closed, etc. There is one slight possibility to attend a service in person. Wait till the end for that.

In the United States for example, almost all churches are closed. Some non-Catholic churches have tried to hold services and many were in violation of rules surrounding social distancing. They were sometimes visited by police to have the services shut down.

In Canada, pretty much all Catholic churches are closed during this time.

Some governors of the United States, for example Greg Abbott of Texas,  have declared Church services to be "essential" along with grocery stores and doctors' offices. Despite this however, both archdiocese in Texas - Galveston-Houston, and the Archdiocese of San Antonio have cancelled all Catholic services throughout the state.

I am not familiar with any place that is having regular Catholic church services. Some places have been innovating though, for example having drive-in Masses and using innovative ways to give confession.

There is one [weird trick]  possible solution to attending Mass in person. Maybe more than one possibility, but here it is. If you ever watch a live stream of a Mass or other church service, you may notice there is sometimes another person or people there. For example, I watched Fr. Mike Schmitz last night for Holy Thursday Mass and there were two other people there for the readings. They even received communion.

Even our live stream we have here in St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada, there are individuals who read or sing, etc. for the priest. If you know a priest personally, you may be able to participate in this way.

I have heard some other "rumours" of people attending sort of clandestine services. Taylor Marshall mentioned on his podcast that he had attended a Mass in a barn. He did not disclose any specific detail. He said they took extra precautions and people were made to sit at least 6 feet apart.

A friend of mine mentioned attending a Mass service, but again indicated it wasn't publicized and was a private event.

There are some interesting possibilities there that some people have the ability to explore. But for the most part, unfortunately, Mass and other Catholic church services are cancelled around the world.

Ideas to Celebrate Good Friday During the Coronavirus (Covid19)

Crucifixion (Titian) - Wikipedia

We are in an unusual time for the Church. Most of us as faithful Catholics cannot partake in the sacraments during this most holy time because of the Covid19 pandemic. In fact, the most holy days of the Church are currently occurring. Jesus Christ gave himself fully on the cross, a sacrifice in atonement for our sins. From this sacrifice, all graces of God flow, just as the blood of Christ flowed on the Good Friday where he was crucified.

For Christians, and specifically Catholics, this is the most holy time of the year. Jesus Christ dies and will rise again in 3 days. It is the central mystery of the entire Christian faith. Sadly, we cannot celebrate these holy days as we normally would: gathered together with other faithful during the Good Friday service as well as other events within the Church.

So what can we do in a time like this? How can we join ourselves more closely with Christ's suffering, death, and ultimate resurrection? I can share a few ideas. I highly encourage anyone who may have other ideas to share them in the comments section.

Good Friday Service
Good Friday Service (which is not a Mass since the Holy Eucharist is not consecrated) traditionally occurs at 3:00pm which is the time that Jesus gave up his spirit on the cross. If you are able, I would strongly recommend tuning in to a live broadcast of a Good Friday service wherever you are in the world. There are many available online. One that I have been watching has been Fr. Mike Schmitz who broadcasts various services from his personal chapel. I get a lot out of his powerful talks.

Here is a link to his channel (Ascension Presents). There you can find upcoming programming.

Many local churches are also broadcasting at this time. In my own area, there are probably a half dozen churches doing such broadcasts, and this is not to mention broadcasts from priests' private chapels.

Stations of the Cross
Another Traditional observance by Catholics is the Stations of the Cross during Good Friday. In it we remember the events that happened during the Trial of Jesus, his passion and finally his execution on the Cross. This can either be done with one's family, alone, or along with others on a live broadcast on the Internet. I am not sure of any particular service such as this available on Youtube or other platform at the moment, but I will definitely be looking for one tomorrow.

Other Observances
Of course, other traditional Catholic spiritual practices can be done during this time such as reciting the Rosary, praying the Chaplet of Divine Mercy. Don't forget to practice silent prayer. Also, Good Friday is one of the most important fasting days of the Church's calendar. All Fridays are days of fasting and abstinence from meat, but in particular this is the case for Good Friday. Try to do something extra this year, particular in this climate of fear and uncertainty and inability to access the sacraments. At this moment, our prayers and fasting are more important than ever.

I wish you all a very holy Good Friday.

Please post your comments or ideas below. I look forward to hearing from you.

Thursday, April 09, 2020

Baptism During Coronavirus (Covid19)

Sacrament of Baptism | Catholic pictures, Catholic images, Catholic

Should people be baptized during this pandemic? What considerations should be made when considering the appropriateness of this? What other areas must be explored?

Baptism is the entry into the Body of Christ, the Church. It removes the stain of original sin as well as any personal sin and fills a person with God's Grace. It is necessary for salvation as Jesus Christ himself proclaims in many parts of the Bible. A person cannot receive any other sacrament from the Church unless and until they are baptized into the Church.

Since baptism is necessary for salvation, it is of utmost important to provide baptism to anyone who so chooses or to an infant belonging to Catholic parents. But during a pandemic, other considerations must be made.

My input into this situation are just my opinion and do not reflect the teaching of the Catholic Church. If you disagree with what I am saying or would like to point out anything, please feel free to do so in the comments section below.

I believe in the case of an infant being baptized, discretion must be used as to whether to proceed during the Coronavirus. I can't say a blanket statement of whether a baptism should or shouldn't go ahead at this time. If a baby is in danger of death or is in ill-health, a baptism, in my opinion, would be highly recommended. It would be irresponsible to forgo it in this circumstance.

However, if a baby is perfectly healthy and has no major issues, it may be best to wait to have the child baptized when everything is back to normal. But I think this is a prudential judgment. Again, depending on the parents, some may feel it would be good to have a child baptized as soon as possible by a priest even in the current situation. Of course, this would require a very small ceremony, and the priest may take certain precautions such as not touching the child.

So again, it's a matter of prudential judgment.

What about in the case of a child who is in danger of death? According to the Church, baptism can be administered by anyone in cases of emergency. They must simply have the requisite intention (i.e. intend what the Church does vis-a-vis baptism) and use the correct Trinitarian formula. If these conditions are met, the baptism is valid.

The coronavirus pandemic would not satisfy the condition of a child being in danger of death and thus allow emergency baptisms to be performed. That is because although there is a pandemic in general, a particular child may not be at risk of death whatsoever. The lack of availability of the sacrament of baptism throughout a particular diocese likewise does not satisfy the conditions for performing an emergency baptism.

The same rules would apply in the case of an adult seeking baptism, otherwise known as catechumen. Catechumen can normally foresee the date of their baptism well in advance. If something like this pandemic breaks out and sacraments by and large are cancelled, they will probably have to make new arrangements to be baptized at a later time. Again, as long as they are not in danger of death, they may want to hold off on being baptized.

As mentioned in previous blogs, although certainly not a prerequisite, if a person were to opt to partake in a sacrament such as baptism, confirmation, or marriage during a pandemic, it is highly likely there would be very few people in attendance. In some areas it would be illegal. Again, although this is not an impediment to the validity or licitness of the sacrament, it is still a consideration as these sacraments as meant to be celebrated by the community and not in private.

What are your thoughts? Sorry I did not have the definitive answer, but I think it's up to each person and family to decide in their own individual circumstances with the help of God to whom they should pray when discerning. I would tell people not to become discouraged or disobedient to proper authority.

Please provide your thoughts in the comment section below. Until next time!